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Calhoun of South Carolina. It was located at what is now the northwest corner of Second Street and Jefferson Street. In , Calhoun was designated as the county seat of Sangamon County due to fertile soil and trading opportunities. Settlers from Kentucky , Virginia , and North Carolina came to the developing city. At that time, the New England city was known for industrial innovation, concentrated prosperity, and the Springfield Armory. Vandalia was the second state capital of Illinois from to Springfield became the third and current capital of Illinois in Lincoln[ edit ] Lincoln and politics[ edit ] Lincoln arrived in the Springfield area when he was a young man in , though he did not live in the city until In Lincoln moved to Springfield and spent the next 24 years as a lawyer and politician. Lincoln delivered his Lyceum address in Springfield. His farewell speech when he left for Washington is a classic in American oratory. He chiefly studied poll books for presidential years. The rise of the Whig Party took place in in opposition to the presidential candidacy of Martin Van Buren and was consolidated in Springfield Whigs tend to validate several expectations of party characteristics as they were largely native-born, either in New England or Kentucky, professional or agricultural in occupation, and devoted to partisan organization. Abraham Lincoln's career reflects the Whigs' political rise, but by the s, Springfield began to be dominated by Democratic politicians. Waves of new European immigrants changed the city's demographics and became aligned with the Democrats. By the presidential election, Lincoln was barely able to win his home city. Widespread migration in the 19th-century United States produced frequent population turnover within Midwestern communities, which influenced patterns of voter turnout and office-holding. Examination of the manuscript census, poll books, and office-holding records reveals the effects of migration on the behavior and voting patterns of 8, participants in 10 elections in Springfield. Most voters were short-term residents who participated in only one or two elections during the s. Instead of producing political instability, however, rapid turnover enhanced the influence of the more stable residents. Migration was selective by age, occupation, wealth, and birthplace. Longer-term or persistent voters, as he terms them, tended to be wealthier, more highly skilled, more often native-born, and socially more stable than non-persisters. Officeholders were particularly persistent and socially and economically advantaged. Persisters represented a small "core community" of economically successful, socially homogeneous, and politically active voters and officeholders who controlled local political affairs, while most residents moved in and out of the city. Members of a tightly knit and exclusive "core community", exemplified by Abraham Lincoln, blunted the potentially disruptive impact of migration on local communities. Williams began his career as a clerk in frontier stores and saved to begin his own business. Later, in addition to operating retail and wholesale stores, he acted as a local banker and then organized a national bank in Springfield. He was active in railroad promotion and as an agent for farm machinery. As a result of the efforts of such missionaries as Friedrich Wyneken, Wilhelm Loehe, and Wilhelm Sihler, additional Lutheran ministers were sent to the Midwest, Lutheran schools were opened, and Concordia Theological Seminary was founded in Ft. Wayne, Indiana in The seminary moved to St. Louis, Missouri , in , and then to Springfield in During the last half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, the Lutheran Church—Missouri Synod succeeded in serving the spiritual needs of Midwestern congregations by establishing additional seminaries from ministers trained at Concordia, and by developing a viable synodical tradition. Illinois regiments trained there, the first ones under Ulysses S. He led his soldiers to a remarkable series of victories in — The city was a political and financial center of Union support. New industries, businesses, and railroads were constructed to help support the war effort. It also served as a camp for Confederate prisoners of war through In the beginning, Springfield residents visited the camp to take part in the excitement of a military venture, but many reacted sympathetically to mortally wounded and ill prisoners. While the city's businesses prospered from camp traffic, drunken behavior and rowdiness on the part of the soldiers stationed there strained relations as neither civil nor military authorities proved able to control disorderly outbreaks. It was a center of government and farming, and by was invested in coal mining and processing. Wright began work on the house in Commissioned by Susan Lawrence Dana, a local patron of the arts and public benefactor, Wright designed a house to harmonize with the owner's devotion to the performance of music. The house is a radical departure from Victorian architectural traditions. As the nation was changing, so Wright intended this structure to reflect the changes. Creating an organic and natural atmosphere, Wright saw himself as an "architect of democracy" and intended his work to be a monument to America's social landscape. The structure was opened to the public as a museum house in September ; tours are available, 9: Springfield Race Riot of Sparked by the alleged rape of a white woman by a black man and the murder of a white engineer, supposedly also by a black man, in Springfield, and reportedly angered by the high degree of corruption in the city, rioting broke out on August 14, and continued for three days in a period of violence known as the Springfield Race Riot. Gangs of white youth and blue-collar workers attacked the predominantly black areas of the city known as the Levee district, where most black businesses were located, and the Badlands, where many black residences stood. Two blacks were lynched and four whites were killed by gunfire when black property-owners sought to defend their homes and businesses. The riot ended when the governor sent in more than 3, militiamen to patrol the city, but isolated incidents of white violence against blacks continued in Springfield into September. Topography[ edit ] According to the census, Springfield has a total area of The Plain is underlain by glacial till that was deposited by a large continental ice sheet that repeatedly covered the area during the Illinoian Stage. The differences in topography are based on the age of drift. The Springfield and Galesburg Plain subsections represent the oldest drift, Illinoian, while Wisconsinian drift resulted in end moraines on the Bloomington Ridged Plain subsection of Till Plain. During the drought from to , lake levels dropped to their historical low,
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