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What do Korean guys think of dating Black girls? 한국 남성들은 흑인 여성과의 데이트에 대해 어떻게 생각하는가?
Andhra Pradesh Andhra Prasesh: The legacy of Kammas in the modern history of Andhra Pradesh: Their embrace of education. Among the non-Brahmin communities, Kammas were one of the first to take to education in large numbers. Over a period of 10 years, in Guntur District alone, High schools were established by their initiative. Zamindars of Challapalli and Kapilewarapuram founded many schools and libraries. Historically, Kammas have been one of the wealthy communities in Andhra Pradesh; in the recent past, their pace of increase in wealth only accelerated due to their success in business, farming, arts and movie industry, education, medicine, engineering, and high technology. Kammas have a progressive social outlook and work hard at anything they take up. They were adept farmers and as a consequence of the changes that affected the economic landscape of rural India down the centuries, they became prosperous. Kammas gradually diversified into other specialties such as films, media, academia, medicine, business, real estate, industries etc. Even though they fall less in number to the Brahmin Social Reformers, Poets, famous Politicians in whole of Andhra history, they have gained good inroads in recent past. They have an enterprising and diligent nature. Kammas can claim credit for introducing modern agricultural techniques in the state. Today, some of the most efficient professional institutions in the state are run by the Kammas. They are generally found in roles ranging from large scale industries to small scale businesses. One admirable characteristic about them is their recognition and belief in the dignity of labor, and are not above lending a hand to hired help and doing some field work themselves in agriculture if they see a need, which is generally considered something to be avoided in India by the upper castes. Many Kammas in villages are not only peasants but are landlords as well. Kammas are mainly concentrated in South Costal A. P and two Rayalaseema Districts. Kammas stood second in the districts W. Kammas are also concentrated in some parts of Nizamabad, Nalgonda, Warangal, Kurnool, Hyderabad and Vizag Districts, in the remaining Districts Kammas are very less in count. Kamma population is more in villages and small towns when compare to Cities and District head quarters. The main reason for this is Kammas are basically agriculturists, their main accoupation is agriculture. P is owned or leased by Kammas. One theory is that the people who lived in the Krishna river valley, where Buddhism prevailed, got the name from Theravada Buddhist concept of Kamma Pali or Karma Sanskrit. Inscriptions mentioning Kammanadu are available since 3rd century A. Some historians opined that the name Kamma is probably derived from Kambhoja, an ancient Aryan warrior clan. Historian Avadh Bihari Lal Avasthi comments as follows: There is also a famous city Koimb-toor. Kambhoja Raja Kathalu is very popular in Andhra traditions. The story deals with militaristic exploits of a fierce and adventuours king of Kambojas. The region extending from the southern bank of Krishna river up to Nellore district of modern Andhra Pradesh was once called Kammanadu. Pallavas started their rule from the southern parts of Telugu country and later extended it to Tamil country with Kanchi as their capital. Lamrick remind us of Sanskrit Kamboja. There is also an ancient Kambhoj caste living near Nanded in Maharashtra which could be a dwindling remnant of ancient Kambojas who had settled in SW India around Christian era. A similar analogy can be drawn with the Kamma caste of Andhra Pradesh which had a military past during medieval times. The people of this caste are known for their enterprising and boisterous nature. Another origin of Kammas is speculated as follows. Buddhist Kurmis from Gangetic plains migrated to Krishna delta in large numbers to escape the persecution of Pushyamitra Sunga B. Buddhism was already flourishing in Dharanikota, Bhattiprolu, Chandavolu etc in this fertile area. The first records of the word Kammakaratham appeared in the Jaggayyapeta inscription of Ikshvaku King Madhariputra Purushadatta 3rd century A. Sardar Vallabhai Patel Former. Chief Minister of Maharastra Dr. Kammanadu is an ancient geographical region in the present day South Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The region straddled from the southern bank of Krishna river delta up to Kandukur Prakasam Dt. Buddhism flourished in this region from 3rd century BC onwards. It is obvious that name was derived from the Theravada Buddhist concept of Karma Kamma. Dharanikota, near Amaravati on the bank of Krishna river Guntur Dt. The region is famous for the exquisite sculpture found in the Buddhist stupas of Bhattiprolu, Nagarjunakonda and Amaravati. The ancient Brahmi script found in the inscriptions at Bhattiprolu was the progenitor of modern Telugu and Tamil scripts. The mention of Karmarashtram is noticed first in the inscriptions of Ikshvaku king Madhariputra Purushadatta 3rd century A. D found at Bethavolu Jaggayyapeta. Srisarvalokasraya maharajah kammarashtre chendaluri grame Sanskrit In all contemporary inscriptions 3rd to 11th century AD the words Kammaratham, Kammakaratham, Karmarashtram, Karmakaratham and Karmakarashtram, Kammakarashtram were interchangeably used. It is not known clearly when the usage of the word Kammanadu ceased. The division of warrior class into many castes and their consolidation commenced in the time of Prataparudra I A. Badabanala Bhatta prescribed Surnames and Gothras of Kammas. Castes such as Kamma, Velama, Reddy and Telaga probably had a common origin. The battle of Palnadu A. D created strife among the social groups of the Telugu country, which echoes till today. The affiliation of Kammas as a caste to the ruling dynasties could not be ascribed till 11th century. Traces of evidence were found in the inscriptions of Telugu Chodas of Velanadu starting from Gonka I , found in many places in Kammanadu. The Dharanikota kings who belonged to Kota clan of Kammas had marital alliances with Telugu Cholas. Similarly, Kota kings married the women from Kakatiya dynasty E. Jayapa is also well known for his contributions to the field of Indian dance A. Around this time many warriors from Kammanadu joined the forces of Kakatiya empire. Such evidences prompted some historians to speculate that Kakatiyas were Kammas. However, this theory needs to be validated. Kammas grew to prominence during the Kakatiya reign. In the middle ages they held important positions in their army. After the fall of Warangal they united the Nayaka chieftains, wrested Warangal from the Delhi Sultanate and ruled for 50 years Subsequently many Kammas migrated to the Vijayanagar kingdom. Later, Vishwanatha Nayudu was made Governor of Madurai. An interesting historical episode was that a Kamma Nayak Pemmasani Thimma Nayudu saved the life of Krisnadeva Raya in the battle of Raichur and the grateful king made him the Governor of Gandikota Cuddapah district. Thimma Nayudu constructed a large number of temples in Rayalaseema region. Kammas controlled parts of south and north Tamil Nadu for several years under the title of Nayacker, which was a legacy of the Vijayanagar Empire. Thirumala Nayacker of Madurai was the most famous among them. They were one of the great Telugu kingdoms that lasted for centuries. Origins During the 10th and 11th centuries the Vengi region came under the rule of Kalyani chalukyas and the Chola at differnt times. The time period between CE and CE saw repeated wars between these two powerful kingdoms for control of Vengi. The Kakatiya dynasty ruled as Chalukya feudatories over parts of present day Andhra Pradesh during this time. They were at first the feudatories of the Western Chalukyas of Kalyana, ruling over a small territory near Warangal. A ruler of this dynasty, Prola II, who ruled from A. His successor Rudra A. He built a fort at Warangal to serve as a second capital and faced the invasions of the Yadavas of Devagiri. The next ruler Mahadeva extended the kingdom to the coastal area. He was the greatest of the Kakatiyas and the first after the Satavahanas to bring the entire Telugu area under one rule. He put an end to the rule of the Velanati Cholas in A. He forced the Telugu Cholas of Vikramasimhapura to accept his suzerainty. He established order in his vast dominion and encouraged trade. As Ganapati Deva had no sons, his daughter Rudramba succeeded him in A. Some generals, who did not like to be ruled by her, rebelled. She could, however, suppress the internal rebellions and external invasions with the help of loyal subordinates. The Cholas and the Yadavas suffered such set backs at her hands that they did not think of troubling her for the rest of her rule. Prataparudra succeeded his grandmother Rudramba in A. He pushed the western border of his kingdom up to Raichur. He introduced many administrative reforms. He divided the kingdom into 75 Nayakships, which was later adopted and developed by the Rayas of Vijayanagara. In his time the territory constituting Andhra Pradesh had the first experience of a Muslim invasion. But Prataparudra defeated them at Upparapalli in Karimnagar district. It provoked another invasion of the Muslims.
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