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Up to Preston had a number of local workhouses. The earliest, dating from around , was situated at Avenham and was for the unemployed poor. In it could accommodate up to 90 inmates. A new building was erected in at the west side of Deepdale Road where Burrow Road now stands. Eden , in his survey of poor relief in England, recorded of Preston: Between July 1, , and Jan. A new Workhouse was recently erected near the town, on which occasion a paper was published from which the following is an extract: There are 4 or 5 beds in a room. The bedsteads are made of iron, and the beds stuffed with chaff. White-washing and other means of keeping the house clean seem rather neglected. Nothing is manufactured for the use of the house. There were 26 men, 39 women, 47 boys, and 40 girls in the house. The boys and girls weave callico till they are able to earn their living elsewhere. Old women wind cotton, a few who can work, are employed in husbandry, gardening and other occupations No account of their earnings could be obtained. The following is the bill of fare: Dinner — Sunday, Tuesday, Thursday — Beef, bread, vegetables and beer; other days — Beef hashed with onions, etc. The estimate, given above, of the weekly expenses of provisions; for a pauper in the house, furnished by the vestry clerk, does not include the whole charge of each person. If all expenses are included, it is about 3s. In , the House of Recovery, a fever hospital was opened just to the south of the workhouse — the institution had originally been established on 28th June, , on a site near Trinity Church. Other township workhouses in the area included Penwortham erected , Walton-le-Dale , Longton , Ribchester , Wood Plumpton , Hutton , and Howick The Hutton workhouse was located on Pope Lane. Hutton workhouse site, A plaque in the front of the building records: Its operation was overseen by an elected Board of Guardians, 35 in number, representing its 29 constituent parishes and townships as listed below figures in brackets indicate numbers of Guardians if more than one: The population falling within the Union at the census had been 59, with parishes and townships ranging in size from Elston population 64 to Preston itself 33, Like many parts of industrial northern England, Preston was opposed to the Poor Law Amendment Act and its insistence on the establishment of a deterrent workhouse. The union's preference was to distribute out-relief in times of industrial slump, and for workhouses to be small and local. Following the formation of the Preston Union, the Howick, Hutton, and Longton workhouses were closed and sold off. Deepdale Road and Wood Plumpton stayed as mixed workhouses, Ribchester was used for adult males, Walton-le-Dale became the union's boys' school, and Penwortham was used for girls. Preston Deepdale Road Workhouse Deepdale Road was used as the union's main workhouse for adult inmates and by the s could accommodate It also had an infants' school attached. Preston Deepdale Road site, Conditions in the workhouse were the subject of severe criticism following an inspection by Poor Law Inspector R. Cane in November Some of the observations he made in his official report are given below. This workhouse is old, ill arranged, and unsuitable in every respect for the purposes for which it is used, namely, the reception of all classes of poor. The classification is nominal merely, almost all the inmates meet together in the yard in the centre of the building. Ventilation, in the proper sense of the term, can hardly be said to exist in any of the wards. The wards are for the most part dark, low, close, gloomy, and unhealthy ; they are dangerously crowded with inmates, especially in the infirm and sick wards. Many of the infirm people, men as well as women, are sleeping together two in a bed. The sick have not all of them a separate bed to lie upon. In the "venereal ward" the patients affected with syphilis are sleeping together two in a bed. Two women, owing to a want of room, have lately been placed together in the same bed in the lying-in ward, both having just been confined. Four patients, two men and two boys, were lately sleeping together in the same bed in the "itch ward. The man lying in the middle of the bed had his feet to the top of the bed, and his head came out at the bottom of it. The feet of the other two men were placed so as to be close to the head of the man who was lying between them. In the midst of this ward, and in full view of the others, boys and men, an adult patient was standing upright without a fragment of clothes upon him, whilst a pauper attendant painted him over with a brush dipped in an application for his disease. The "itch ward" is at all times the most disagreeable to enter of any. The peculiar remedy prescribed, the nature of the treatment observed, and the use in such ward of the refuse bedding and linen of the house, necessarily render it the most offensive of all. At subsequent visit in the following January, things had improved a little, but overcrowding meant that bed-sharing was still commonplace. The following instances were noted as sharing beds: Male Sick Wards 1 Man with itch and 1 Boy with itch 1 Case of rheumatism and 1 of diabetes 1 Case of syphilis and 1 Case of ulcer 1 Case "Bright's Disease" and 1 Syphilis 1 Case of debility and 1 of paralysis 1 Case of bad leg and 1 Debility 2 Men both with itch 1 Case phthisis and 1 Blind and infirm and 1 Case of bronchitis 1 Case of ulcer and 1 Case of debility 1 Case of itch and debility and 1 of ulcers Preston House of Recovery The House of Recovery, located to the south of the Deepdale Road workhouse, became the union's fever hospital. In the same inspection it was noted that "the beds and bedding were good and sufficient; the whole establishment seemed to be exceedingly clean. A commemorative plaque recording the building's erection still survives. The Lord of the Manor In the year The building was roughly T-shaped in layout. After , it was used as the union's girls' school. Penwortham workhouse site, Preston's former Penwortham workhouse site from the north-west, In , a Poor Law Board inspection recorded: This workhouse is an old building, adjoining the road, with a moderately-sized garden. There is water of good quality, and of ample supply. It is set apart for the reception of pauper girls only, of whom 86 are allowed to be maintained in it at one time. At present there are Their ages vary from 4 to 13 years. Twenty of them are Roman Catholics, and are visited by priests of the school. The remainder belong to the Church of England, and attend church on Sundays. The girls are under the care of a matron, who is also the schoolmistress. She is assisted by 10 pauper servants — seven women and three old men. The reports of the inspector of schools are of a favourable character. The children readily obtain employment as soon as they are old and strong enough, and they keep their places when they leave the school. They appear to be clean, well clothed, well fed, contented, and cheerful. The house and the wards are perfectly clean. The food is sufficient in quantity and good of its kind. The beds and bedding, clean and comfortable. The ventilation is good. Upon the whole, this establishment is in a satisfactory state, and its management does much credit to the matron who has charge of it. Its layout is shown on the map below. Ribchester workhouse site, The buildings were adapted in to include special accommodation for lunatics and imbeciles. An inspection by the Poor Law Board in found that: This is an old building, and it does not accord in any way with the plan and arrangements of a modern workhouse. It is placed close to the high road; it is open, airy, and agreeably situated. It is unenclosed except by a hedge. There is good water and a plentiful supply. The drains are not trapped. This workhouse is set apart for male adult paupers. There are a few women only, and they are employed in domestic work. The house at present contains:
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