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Say This To A Girl To Capture Her Attention
Thus, many of the discoveries in the field of attention were made by philosophers. Watson calls Juan Luis Vives the father of modern psychology because, in his book De Anima et Vita The Soul and Life , he was the first to recognize the importance of empirical investigation. By the s, psychologists began using positron emission tomography PET and later functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI to image the brain while monitoring tasks involving attention. Because this expensive equipment was generally only available in hospitals, psychologists sought cooperation with neurologists. Psychologist Michael Posner then already renowned for his seminal work on visual selective attention and neurologist Marcus Raichle pioneered brain imaging studies of selective attention. With the development of these technological innovations, neuroscientists became interested in this type of research that combines sophisticated experimental paradigms from cognitive psychology with these new brain imaging techniques. Although the older technique of electroencephalography EEG had long been used to study the brain activity underlying selective attention by cognitive psychophysiologists , the ability of the newer techniques to actually measure precisely localized activity inside the brain generated renewed interest by a wider community of researchers. Selective and visual[ edit ] See also: Selective auditory attention In cognitive psychology there are at least two models which describe how visual attention operates. These models may be considered loosely as metaphors which are used to describe internal processes and to generate hypotheses that are falsifiable. Generally speaking, visual attention is thought to operate as a two-stage process. In the second stage, attention is concentrated to a specific area of the visual scene i. The first of these models to appear in the literature is the spotlight model. The term "spotlight" was inspired by the work of William James , who described attention as having a focus, a margin, and a fringe. Surrounding the focus is the fringe of attention, which extracts information in a much more crude fashion i. This fringe extends out to a specified area, and the cut-off is called the margin. The second model is called the zoom-lens model and was first introduced in This size-change mechanism was inspired by the zoom lens one might find on a camera, and any change in size can be described by a trade-off in the efficiency of processing. At this phase, descriptions of the objects in a visual scene are generated into structural units; the outcome of this parallel phase is a multiple-spatial-scale structured representation. Selective attention intervenes after this stage to select information that will be entered into visual short-term memory. As Rastophopoulos summarizes the debate: Attention is identified as one of the three major co-active processes of the working brain. Luria published his well-known book The Working Brain in as a concise adjunct volume to his previous book Higher Cortical Functions in Man. In this volume, Luria summarized his three-part global theory of the working brain as being composed of three constantly co-active processes which he described as the; 1 Attention system, 2 Mnestic memory system, and 3 Cortical activation system. The two books together are considered by Homskaya's account as "among Luria's major works in neuropsychology, most fully reflecting all the aspects theoretical, clinical, experimental of this new discipline. Multitasking and divided[ edit ] See also: Human multitasking and Distracted driving Multitasking can be defined as the attempt to perform two or more tasks simultaneously; however, research shows that when multitasking, people make more mistakes or perform their tasks more slowly. In divided attention, individuals attend or give attention to multiple sources of information at once at the same time or perform more than one task. Generally, classical research into attention investigated the ability of people to learn new information when there were multiple tasks to be performed, or to probe the limits of our perception c. There is also older literature on people's performance on multiple tasks performed simultaneously, such as driving a car while tuning a radio  or driving while telephoning. This research reveals that the human attentional system has limits for what it can process: While speaking with a passenger is as cognitively demanding as speaking with a friend over the phone,  passengers are able to change the conversation based upon the needs of the driver. For example, if traffic intensifies, a passenger may stop talking to allow the driver to navigate the increasingly difficult roadway; a conversation partner over a phone would not be aware of the change in environment. There have been multiple theories regarding divided attention. One, conceived by Kahneman ,  explains that there is a single pool of attentional resources that can be freely divided among multiple tasks. This model seems to be too oversimplified, however, due to the different modalities e. The specific modality model was theorized by Navon and Gopher in However, more recent research using well controlled dual-task paradigms points at the importance of tasks. In contrast, when one of the tasks involves object detection, no interference is observed. As an alternative, resource theory has been proposed as a more accurate metaphor for explaining divided attention on complex tasks. Resource theory states that as each complex task is automatized, performing that task requires less of the individual's limited-capacity attentional resources. These include, but are not limited to, anxiety, arousal, task difficulty, and skills. Simultaneous attention is demonstrated by children in Indigenous communities, who learn through this type of attention to their surroundings. Simultaneous attention requires focus on multiple simultaneous activities or occurrences. This differs from multitasking, which is characterized by alternating attention and focus between multiple activities, or halting one activity before switching to the next. Simultaneous attention involves uninterrupted attention to several activities occurring at the same time. Another cultural practice that may relate to simultaneous attention strategies is coordination within a group. Indigenous heritage toddlers and caregivers in San Pedro were observed to frequently coordinate their activities with other members of a group in ways parallel to a model of simultaneous attention, whereas middle-class European-descent families in the U. Alternative topics and discussions[ edit ] Overt and covert orienting[ edit ] Attention may be differentiated into "overt" versus "covert" orienting. Although overt eye movements are quite common, there is a distinction that can be made between two types of eye movements; reflexive and controlled. Reflexive movements are commanded by the superior colliculus of the midbrain. These movements are fast and are activated by the sudden appearance of stimuli. In contrast, controlled eye movements are commanded by areas in the frontal lobe. These movements are slow and voluntary. Covert orienting is the act to mentally shifting one's focus without moving one's eyes. Covert orienting has the potential to affect the output of perceptual processes by governing attention to particular items or locations for example, the activity of a V4 neuron whose receptive field lies on an attended stimuli will be enhanced by covert attention  but does not influence the information that is processed by the senses. Researchers often use "filtering" tasks to study the role of covert attention of selecting information. These tasks often require participants to observe a number of stimuli, but attend to only one. The current view is that visual covert attention is a mechanism for quickly scanning the field of view for interesting locations. This shift in covert attention is linked to eye movement circuitry that sets up a slower saccade to that location. This is due to the fact that central mechanisms that may control covert orienting, such as the parietal lobe also receive input from subcortical centres involved in overt orienting. Exogenous and endogenous orienting[ edit ] Orienting attention is vital and can be controlled through external exogenous or internal endogenous processes. However, comparing these two processes is challenging because external signals do not operate completely exogenously, but will only summon attention and eye movements if they are important to the subject. This often results in a reflexive saccade. Since exogenous cues are typically presented in the periphery, they are referred to as peripheral cues. Exogenous orienting can even be observed when individuals are aware that the cue will not relay reliable, accurate information about where a target is going to occur. This means that the mere presence of an exogenous cue will affect the response to other stimuli that are subsequently presented in the cue's previous location. Posner and Cohen noted a reversal of this benefit takes place when the interval between the onset of the cue and the onset of the target is longer than about ms. Endogenous from Greek endo, meaning "within" or "internally" orienting is the intentional allocation of attentional resources to a predetermined location or space. Simply stated, endogenous orienting occurs when attention is oriented according to an observer's goals or desires, allowing the focus of attention to be manipulated by the demands of a task. In order to have an effect, endogenous cues must be processed by the observer and acted upon purposefully. These cues are frequently referred to as central cues. This is because they are typically presented at the center of a display, where an observer's eyes are likely to be fixated. Central cues, such as an arrow or digit presented at fixation, tell observers to attend to a specific location. Researchers of this school have described two different aspects of how the mind focuses attention to items present in the environment. The first aspect is called bottom-up processing, also known as stimulus-driven attention or exogenous attention. These describe attentional processing which is driven by the properties of the objects themselves. Some processes, such as motion or a sudden loud noise, can attract our attention in a pre-conscious, or non-volitional way. We attend to them whether we want to or not. This aspect of our attentional orienting is under the control of the person who is attending. It is mediated primarily by the frontal cortex and basal ganglia   as one of the executive functions. Studies show that if there are many stimuli present especially if they are task-related , it is much easier to ignore the non-task related stimuli, but if there are few stimuli the mind will perceive the irrelevant stimuli as well as the relevant. The cognitive refers to the actual processing of the stimuli. Studies regarding this showed that the ability to process stimuli decreased with age, meaning that younger people were able to perceive more stimuli and fully process them, but were likely to process both relevant and irrelevant information, while older people could process fewer stimuli, but usually processed only relevant information. As is frequently the case, clinical models of attention differ from investigation models. One of the most used models for the evaluation of attention in patients with very different neurologic pathologies is the model of Sohlberg and Mateer. Five different kinds of activities of growing difficulty are described in the model; connecting with the activities those patients could do as their recovering process advanced. The ability to respond discretely to specific visual, auditory or tactile stimuli. Sustained attention vigilance and concentration: The ability to maintain a consistent behavioral response during continuous and repetitive activity. The ability to maintain a behavioral or cognitive set in the face of distracting or competing stimuli. Therefore, it incorporates the notion of "freedom from distractibility. The ability of mental flexibility that allows individuals to shift their focus of attention and move between tasks having different cognitive requirements. This is the highest level of attention and it refers to the ability to respond simultaneously to multiple tasks or multiple task demands. This model has been shown to be very useful in evaluating attention in very different pathologies, correlates strongly with daily difficulties and is especially helpful in designing stimulation programs such as attention process training, a rehabilitation program for neurological patients of the same authors. Mindfulness has been conceptualized as a clinical model of attention. If a neuron has a certain response to a stimulus when the animal is not attending to the stimulus, then when the animal does attend to the stimulus, the neuron's response will be enhanced even if the physical characteristics of the stimulus remain the same. In a review, Knudsen  describes a more general model which identifies four core processes of attention, with working memory at the center: Working memory temporarily stores information for detailed analysis.
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